Abstract: Donatella Cherubini „Pacifist and Anti-revolutionary Italian Socialism in the Context of World War I. G.E. Modigliani in the Zimmerwald Movement: “War to war” and the United States of Europe (1915–1917)“

In 1914 the choice between patriotism and pacifism was dramatic, both for Peace and Socialist activists: the call of the country defeated pacifist and antimilitarist stances rooted in previous European history.

While the Second International collapsed, the Italian G.E. Modigliani (brother of the painter and anti-revolutionary leader) played a relevant role in war to war.

In 1915-16 he was deeply involved in the Zimmerwald Movement, aiming to summon the proletariat to a common action of peace. Modigliani opposed Lenin who forecast a revolutionary exit; led the majority which confirmed the imperialist character of the war; drafted the final Manifesto along with Trotsky and Rakowsky. The call for a peace without annexations and indemnities was later restated, requesting an immediate armistice.

A fundamental stage was the European Federation, bound to the interests of bourgeoisie and governments but also a guarantee of disarmament and hence of peace. The United States of Europe remained a decisive benchmark until WWII, placing Modigliani among the major defenseurs de la paix.

Colloque international “Les défenseurs de la paix 1899-1917. Approches actuelles, nouveaux regards”, 15-17 janvier 2014


Teamaccount der Redaktion. Forschen – Vermitteln – Qualifizieren: Das DHI Paris ist ein zentraler Akteur international ausgerichteter historischer Forschung im Verbund der Max Weber Stiftung, Deutsche Geisteswissenschaftliche Institute im Ausland.

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