Abstract: Donatella Cherubini „Pacifist and Anti-revolutionary Italian Socialism in the Context of World War I. G.E. Modigliani in the Zimmerwald Movement: “War to war” and the United States of Europe (1915–1917)“
In 1914 the choice between patriotism and pacifism was dramatic, both for Peace and Socialist activists: the call of the country defeated pacifist and antimilitarist stances rooted in previous European history.
While the Second International collapsed, the Italian G.E. Modigliani (brother of the painter and anti-revolutionary leader) played a relevant role in war to war.
In 1915-16 he was deeply involved in the Zimmerwald Movement, aiming to summon the proletariat to a common action of peace. Modigliani opposed Lenin who forecast a revolutionary exit; led the majority which confirmed the imperialist character of the war; drafted the final Manifesto along with Trotsky and Rakowsky. The call for a peace without annexations and indemnities was later restated, requesting an immediate armistice.
A fundamental stage was the European Federation, bound to the interests of bourgeoisie and governments but also a guarantee of disarmament and hence of peace. The United States of Europe remained a decisive benchmark until WWII, placing Modigliani among the major defenseurs de la paix.