Abstract: Gearóid Barry „Realms of peace activism: religious internationalism, secular internationalism and the pre-history of Catholic pacifism, 1899–1917.“
This paper presents the embryonic peace movement within European Catholicism in the period 1899-1917. Sketching the origins of the Ligue des catholiques français pour la Paix, founded in 1909 by Alfred Vanderpol, and how it paved the way for an international Catholic league created at Brussels in 1910 which supported ‘juridical pacifism’, the paper’s main thrust is the manner in which the First World War – and Benedict XV’s peace policy- brought such movements in from the margins. By 1917, German Catholic ‘defenders of peace’ – such as Magnus Jocham and Max-Josef Metzger- publicised their support for the pope, an example not lost on tentative French fellow travellers such as Marc Sangnier. Such itineraries demonstrate more broadly the entangled history of religious internationalism and pacifism in this period.